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History[ edit ] The earliest Japanese romanization system was based on Portuguese orthography. It was developed around by a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro.
Jesuit priests used the system in a series of printed Catholic books so that missionaries could preach and teach their converts without learning to read Japanese orthography.
The most useful of these books for the study of early modern Japanese pronunciation and early attempts at romanization was the Nippo jishoa Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written in In general, the early Portuguese system was similar to Nihon-shiki in its treatment of vowels.
Some consonants were transliterated differently: The latter continued to be printed and read after the suppression of Christianity in Japan Chibbett, The Hepburn system included representation of some sounds that have since changed.
The Nihon-shiki romanization was an outgrowth of that movement.
Later, in the early 20th century, some scholars devised syllabary systems with characters derived from Latin rather like the Cherokee syllabary that were even less popular since they were not based on any historical use of the Latin script.
Today, the use of Nihon-shiki for writing Japanese is advocated by the Oomoto sect  and some Japanese writing translation free organizations. However, that policy failed and a more moderate attempt at Japanese script reform followed.
Although in principle Hepburn is used, Kokuhu is the kunrei-shiki form would be Kokufu in Hepburn. Hepburn romanization Hepburn romanization generally follows English phonology with Romance vowels.
It is an intuitive method of showing Anglophones the pronunciation of a word in Japanese. Hepburn is the most common romanization system in use today, especially in the English-speaking world.
Without the apostrophe, it would not be possible to distinguish this correct reading from the incorrect ju-ni-chi-ro-u. This system is widely used in Japan and among foreign students and academics. Nihon-shiki romanization Nihon-shiki romanization, which predates the Hepburn system, was originally invented as a method for Japanese to write their own language in Latin characters.
It follows the Japanese syllabary very strictly, with no adjustments for changes in pronunciation. It is therefore the only major system of romanization that allows near-lossless mapping to and from kana. It has also been standardized as ISO Strict.
Also known as Nippon-shiki, rendered in the Nihon-shiki style of romanization the name is either Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki.
Kunrei-shiki romanization Kunrei-shiki romanization is a slightly modified version of Nihon-shiki which eliminates differences between the kana syllabary and modern pronunciation.
See the table below for full details. Kunrei-shiki is taught to Japanese elementary school students in their fourth year of education.
Written in Kunrei-shiki, the name of the system would be rendered Kunreisiki. Other variants[ edit ] It is possible to elaborate these romanizations to enable non-native speakers to pronounce Japanese words more correctly.
JSL romanization JSL is a romanization system based on Japanese phonology, designed using the linguistic principles used by linguists in designing writing systems for languages that do not have any.
It is a purely phonemic system, using exactly one symbol for each phoneme, and marking pitch accent using diacritics. Its principle is that such a system enables students to internalize the phonology of Japanese better.
Non-standard romanization[ edit ] In addition to the standardized systems above, there are many variations in romanization, used either for simplification, in error or confusion between different systems, or for deliberate stylistic reasons.
While there may be arguments in favour of some of these variant romanizations in specific contexts, their use, especially if mixed, leads to confusion when romanized Japanese words are indexed.
Note that this confusion never occurs when inputting Japanese characters with a word processor, because input Latin letters are transliterated into Japanese kana as soon as the IME processes what character is input.
This is valid JSL romanization. For Hepburn romanization, it is not a valid romanization if the long vowel belongs within a single word. Example words written in each romanization system[ edit ] English.Free online translator enhanced by dictionary definitions, pronunciations, synonyms, examples and supporting the 19 languages most used on the web.
The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic yunusemremert.com itself consists of a pair of syllabaries: hiragana, used primarily for native or naturalised Japanese words and grammatical elements, and katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names, loanwords, onomatopoeia, scientific names, and sometimes for .
RomajiDesu is a free online Japanese ⇆ English dictionary which contains the following tools for Japanese learners: English Japanese dictionary: A powerful and easy to use bi-directional English-Japanese dictionary where you just need to type your word into a single input.
Japanese usually writes words from English and other languages in katakana. Katakana is phonetic, so a katakana transcription of an English word is based on how the word sounds, not how it is spelt. Katakana is phonetic, so a katakana transcription of an English word is based on how the word sounds, not how it .
Online translation for English to Ukrainian and other languages. The translator can translate text, words and phrases for Spanish, French, English, German, Portuguese. Japanese is a language spoken by more than million people in Japan and abroad.
It is an agglutinative language, with a complex system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese .